Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria is the bacteria that is responsible for causing tuberculosis, or, in most instances this is the mycobacteria behind the infection. These bacteria require a lot of oxygen their very makeup is aerobic which is true of animals, fungi and many other bacteria. Molds and singular human cells are composed of a specialized anaerobic type of cell called a faculative anaerobe. Anaerobic organisms do not need oxygen for growth and faculative anaerobes can use the oxygen or not. Human cells use fermented lactic acid in place of oxygen if needed due to lack of oxygen. Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, like other aerobic bacteria, can be differentiated from anaerobic bacteria by putting them to grow in a liquid culture that has been placed in a test tube and watching to see whether they congregate toward the top or the bottom of the culture.

The aeorobic bacteria will locate very near the top of the solution, while the anaeorobic bacteria will locate as near to the bottom as they can, this is because the aeorobic bacteria are seeking the oxygen which is located at the top of the solution and the anaeorobic bacteria are avoiding it. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, in addition to being aeorobic is also a pathogen. A pathogen is something that creates disease in its host, the host can be either animal or plant life. In the case of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria the host is human.

To invade the human body the bacteria need a pathway. Pathways can occur during treatments for other disorders such as chemotherapy or an antibiotic therapy. The pathways can occur if the person is infected with the HIV virus and during other run down conditions. The tuberculosis bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is the most common harmful or pathogenic bacteria that is known to instigate disease in humans of all the bacteria.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis not only causes problems in the lungs and with those problems bloody sputum, hacking, chronic coughing and fever, it also causes night sweats, chest pains, chills, fatigue and the potential of infecting the other organs. Extra-pulmonary areas include the fluid around the lungs known as the pleura, the central nervous system and this would be known as meningitis when infected, the lymphatic system, the genitourinary system or the bones and joints, especially in the spine which is known as Pott’s disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or, M. tuberculosis, is more likely to infect persons who suffer from substance abuse, drug therapies for other conditions or who suffer with AIDS.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis was only discovered in 1882 like many diseases tuberculosis was much less well understood before the discovery of the bacteria or viruses that cause them. The M. tuberculosis bacteria is neither gram negative or gram positive in the basic sense but has instead been classified as acid-fast Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria being the kind that usually cause disease in humans. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a bacillus or rod shaped bacteria. It has a unique and lipid cell wall that is composed primarily of mycolic acid and a high resistance to the human macrophages, which are part of the immune network involving antibodies and white blood cells, as well as most drugs.